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Filipino Americans constitute the second-largest population of Asian Americans, and the largest population of Overseas Filipinos.The first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates to October 1587, with the first permanent settlement of Filipinos in what is now the United States being established in Louisiana in 1763.The patriarchal foundation of Philippine culture is a consequence of nearly four centuries of Spanish colonialism between the early 16th and late 19th Centuries (Philippine History website, 2006, para. Prior to Spains occupation, Indigenous women in the Philippines shared an egalitarian relationship with their male counterparts and even played a significant role in the spiritual arena in which women could achieve high priestess, or babaylan, status (Wall, 1998, para. According to Wall (1998): [Indigenous women] received equal inheritance, were given training on par with men, enjoyed the same rights as in the right to divorce, had the same succession rights as men for political leadership, were involved in managing not just the domestic economy but also the agricultural domain And, it was fertility, not virginity, that was valued in that society. In the 18th Century, Gabriela Silang would become the first documented female freedom fighter to resist the Spanish occupation of the city of Vigan in the Illokandia region (Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, 2003, para. After her husband and famous rebel fighter, Diego Silang, became slayed shortly after victoriously liberating Vigan , Silang took the reigns as the rebellions commander-in-chief (Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, 2003, para. Silang would later be driven out of Vigan by Spanish forces, however, she would use the city of Pidigan as her armys new headquarters where she would eventually wage a series of guerilla attacks against her opposition (Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, 2003, para. While waging the battle of her life in order to recapture Vigan City, Silang and her troops were eventually outnumbered by the Spanish garrisons (Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, 2003, para. On September 20, 1763, Silang was publicly hanged at the hands of her Spanish oppressors (Joan of Arc of Ilocandia, 2003, para. Not surprisingly, Gabriela Silang has become a symbol of Filipina strength, virtue, and tenacity in the face of great adversity. Even the GABRIELA (General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action) Network, the Philippine-United States womens organization premised on the solidarity and empowerment of Filipino women, borrowed its name from Silang (GABRIELA Network website, 2007, para. Therefore, Gabriela Silang has become the first of many Filipina feminists to vehemently resist their unchosen fate as colonial slaves. Not just my closet: Exposing familial, cultural, and imperial skeletons. In response to this blatant marginalization, Filipinas from around the world have created their own spaces, organizations, and publications in order for their feminist voices to be heard. Retrieved from Google Scholar on April 5th, 2007 from, The women of the first quarter storm of 1970: Women fully engaged with the making of history. Doctoral thesis from University of Wollongong, Australia. Bodies, letters, catalogs: Filipinas in transnational space. Retrieved from JSTOR database on April 5th, 2007 from, De Jesus (2005) refers to peminism, or Filipino American-centred feminism as the gendered analysis of imperial traumathe Philippines dual colonization by Spain and the United States and the articulation of Pinay [Filipina] resistance to imperialisms lingering effects: colonial mentality, deracination, and self-alienation (p. Similarly, the Philippine Women Centre of British Columbia has a complementary Canadian ethos which aims to [p]romote awareness by Filipino women of their common interests, issues, and problems as women of an ethnic minority living in Canada; [h]elp foster feminist values from the perspective of Philippine women, [and] encourage inter-cultural understanding with women from other ethnic communities (Philippine Women Centre of BC website, 2007, para. In order to come to a clearer understanding of Filipina American and Canadian-centred feminisms, this paper aims to explore how the seeds of Pinay agency have been sowed to resist oppressive colonial and post-colonial legacies, while demonstrating how layers of structural discrimination have shaped peminist activism within North America. Once Spanish colonizers started successfully indoctrinating Indigenous peoples into Roman Catholicism, patriarchal priviledge would eventually come at the cost of female oppression (Wall, 1998, para. As a result, Filipinas would endure nearly half a millenium of subordination, violence, sexual brutality, and physical commodification at the hands of both domestic and foreign oppressors (Wall, 1998, para. However, colonialism would not kill the will of Filipino women to fight for their rights. id=VIOV7g SVGns C&printsec=frontcover&dq= inay power: peminist critical theory#PPR7, M1 Taguiwalo, J. Presentation from the Department of Women and Development Studies, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved on March 30th, 2007 from, NWU20041222.122054/public/02Tolentino, R. The lowdown: You don’t hear about the Secret Service getting in trouble with the local ladies in Bolivia, do you? What she thinks about you: While in America it might be seen as “coming on too strong”, in Colombia it's just viewed as the equivalent of “waving hello from a car window”.
As of the 2010 Census, there were 3.4 million Filipino Americans, including Multiracial Americans who were part Filipino, with the United States Department of State in 2011 estimating the population at 4 million.
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According to Heywood and Drake (1997), the third wave is broadly defined as a movement that contains elements of second wave critique of beauty culture, sexual abuse, and power structure while it also acknowledges and makes use of the pleasures, danger, and defining powers of those structures (p. While one may interpret this definition to be inclusive to all women of diverse races, cultures, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, and religions, one must literally look at the writing on the wall to discover the contrary.